CyberPoint Blog

We not only protect what’s invaluable, but we write about it too.

Worst-Case Complexity of Ford-Fulkerson

Cyberspace — the Next Utility Infrastructure Ask a computer scientist the worst-case complexity of the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm1 with integral edge capacities, and you'll likely get the answer of O(E*|f|), where E is the number of edges in the graph, and |f| is the capacity of the maximum flow, f, that the algorithm seeks to find. Indeed, that would have been my answer, as well. Until I tried to exploit that worst-case behavior.

Recently, I have been developing Java programs containing algorithmic complexity vulnerabilities, in order to test vulnerability detection tools being developed. Ford-Fulkerson seemed a perfect example of an algorithm where inputs that produce worst-case behavior are relatively rare, yielding a denial-of-service vulnerability that is difficult to detect by fuzzing.

On each iteration, the algorithm finds a path from the source to the sink that has some additional capacity that hasn't already been used in previous iterations. This is called an augmenting path. This path may include backtracking along an edge that has some of its capacity already used.

A worst-case example is one with a small augmenting path. Such a graph would cause only small increments towards the maximum flow on each iteration. The figure below shows such a graph, the standard graph used when discussing the complexity of the algorithm.

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Cyberspace — the Next Utility Infrastructure

Posted November 13, 2017 by Rich Arnold

Cyberspace — the Next Utility Infrastructure Note: This White Paper represents the exploratory thoughts and analysis of the author; the assertions and recommendations are provided for consideration and validation by our industry, academic, and government partners. The opinions expressed herein may not be the same as those held by the owners, investors, or other executives of CyberPoint who were not involved in the writing of this White Paper…but they should be! .

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Accelerating Capabilities Acquisition Through OTAs and PIAs: A Contractor Perspective

Posted November 7, 2017 by Rich Arnold

Accelerating Capabilities Acquisition Through OTAs and PIAs OTAs (Other Transaction Agreements) are appropriate when you want prototypes (demos, validation, feasibility) of innovative capabilities directly relevant to weapons or weapons systems, and directly related to mission effectiveness (of personnel and supporting platforms, or by improvement of platforms/systems/components thereof).

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Malicious Browser Extensions

Posted August 25, 2017 by Zach Miller

Using Compression to Compare Objects As we do more and more of our day-to-day tasks online, our web browsers have become an irreplaceable tool for many people. Often, we decide to augment the default behavior of these browsers with browser extensions to provide custom functionality to our browsers in order to make the tasks that we perform online easier.

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Using Compression to Compare Objects

Posted April 13, 2017 by Riva Borbely

Using Compression to Compare Objects In my previous blog post, I discussed our endeavor to benefit from unsupervised learning on CyberPoint's malware dataset. One of the more intriguing tools I played with during that effort was the normalized compression distance (NCD).

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Share your Indicators of Compromise

Posted January 11, 2017 by Kirk Hedelius

Share your Indicators of Compromise At CyberPoint, we pride ourselves on mastering and using all effective strategies to prevent, discover, and fix cyber attacks. Over the past decade, a promising approach, the use of Indicators of Compromise (IOCs), has moved from specialized government and military applications into widespread use.

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Learning in the Dark: Lessons Learned in Unsupervised Learning

Posted December 7, 2016 by Riva Borbely

CyberPoint has seen great success in using supervised machine learning for malware detection. A while back, however, some colleagues and I set out to investigate whether we could make any interesting discoveries by applying unsupervised learning to CyberPoint's malware dataset.

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Logging Keystrokes with Event Tracing for Windows (ETW)

Posted October 22, 2016 by Nate Rogers and Stan Chua

Logging Keystrokes with Event Tracing for Windows As a follow-up to our talk at Ruxcon, "Make ETW Great Again", we wanted to go into a bit more depth than we could cover in our hour long talk. While our talk consisted of multiple examples of ETW usage, detecting ransomware, USB Keylogging, and sniffing SSL encrypted data from WinINet (our code can be found here:

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The Human Interface Device (HID) Attack, aka USB Drive-By

Posted October 18, 2016 by Mark McLarnon

The Human Interface Device (HID) Attack As a part of our effort to educate, assess and train (EAT), we want to highlight a physical host attack technique that is extremely cheap and simple to pull off, and unfortunately yields a significant return for the attacker if successful. The technique is commonly referred to as a "Human Interface Device (HID) attack" or a "USB drive-by".

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Software Defined Security at CyberPoint

Posted September 23, 2016 by Zach Miller

Software Defined Security at CyberPoint Software-defined networking, commonly referred to as SDN, has received a lot of press recently regarding both the technology itself and the impact that it will have in the networking world. At CyberPoint, being a cyber security company, we got curious and decided to take a look at the impact that SDN could have on security.

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The Minimum

Posted May 6, 2016 by Rich Arnold, CRO

The Minimum "If the minimum weren't good enough, it wouldn't be the minimum."

It's not just a rationalization of laziness. It's often the correct approach to compliance with externally mandated cyber security requirements.

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